About HIV / AIDS

Acronyms used are: SIDA (on French is: Syndrom d'Immunodeficience Acquiese) and AIDS (on English: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Syndrome stands for group of symptoms and signs, which are appearing as result of loosing ability for immune deficiency. This group of disease symptoms and signs are not always appearing in full scope. In some cases only one sign is appearing (ex. loosing weight) but in some cases more of them (lungs inflammation, loosing weight, swelling of lymph gland, cancer of skin and inside organs). Acquired loosing of immune deficiency means that some cause neutralizes immune system to fight and overbear invasion of microbiology, which at healthy people doesn't develop to disease. Some studies, which are analyzing persons who live with HIV, show that some of them don't have any symptoms, but in some cases the only symptom is enlargement of lymph gland (generalized lymphdenopaty). This is leading to conclusion that not every person who is infected with HIV will develop AIDS and that this depends from case to case.

History of HIV/AIDS

AIDS is relatively new recognized illness. In table 1 are some important dates related to discovery of this illness and isolation of its cause (HIV).

Until 1980. HIV was transmitted before AIDS was recognized as new illness.

1981. Epidemic of lung pneumonia caused by protozoon Penumocystis carinii in Los Angeles, SAD.
1981. Epidemic of Kaposhi sarcoma in New York
1982. CDC (Centar for Disease Control) in Atlanta defined this illness that got the name AIDS.
1983. In Luk Montagnier's laboratory virus LAV was isolated as cause for AIDS.
1984. In Robert Galoa's laboratory in NIH (National Institute for Health) in Bethesta virus identical with LAV was isolated and got the name HTLV III.
1984. In vitro, anti-virus activity of ZIDOVUDIN in obstructing replication of virus was proven.
1985. First commercial ELISA test for proving antibodies on virus that causes AIDS was developed.
1985. Experts commission for fight against AIDS was formed in Federal office for health protection of SFRJ.
1985. Testing blood on HIV started in Yugoslavia .
1985. First two persons with AIDS identified in Yugoslavia (In Army Medical Center).
1986. Special committee proposed to name cause of illness HIV I.
1986. Among persons with AIDS in countries of West Africa the cause for AIDS different than HIV was isolated and named HIV II.
1987. World Health Organization adopted the program for fight against AIDS that in 1988. becomes Global program for fight against AIDS.
1987. The Law on obligatory blood tests and tests on blood products, tissues and organs was endorsed.
1989. 1. December was established as World Day of Fight Against AIDS.
1989. First case of person infected with HIV was recorded in Montenegro (Kotor).
1991. “Red Ribbon” was introduced as international sign for fight against AIDS.
1996. Global program for fight against AIDS is put under United Nations as UNAIDS program.
1998. Montenegrin organization Against AIDS - CAZAS was formed.

1981. doctors in LA were surprised that in group of, on first sight, healthy young persons there was development of lung pneumonia caused by microorganism Pneumacystis carinii, that until that time, caused such illness only on persons with reduced immunology defense system, from therapy of taking citostatic medicines in order to cure cancer or for reducing immunology reactivity in transplanting organs or treating autoimmune illnesses.

In 1981. doctors in New York noticed among young people, perfectly healthy up to then, appearance of Karpo and sarcoma, one variation of skin cancer that can occur on persons with low immunology reactivity. For both this groups it was characteristic that all persons with this illness were infected with other sexual transmitted diseases, as syphilis and gonorrhea. Not much after this there were first cases of infected persons who were not homosexuals, but they used drugs intravenously and hemophiliacs that are suffering from lack of one blood factor which is preventing normal coagulation of bleeding and that's why they need to get this factor from blood of healthy persons.

All those findings made it possible for CDC (Center for Diseases Control) in Atlanta to define appearance of new illness named AIDS (Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome) and to suggest that this illness is caused by Factor that is transmited sexually or through blood.

New virus was isolated among persons with AIDS, i n Robert Galoa's laboratory in NIH (National Institute for Health) in Bethesta in 1984. This virus was similar to two earlier identified viruses in same laboratory that causes leukemia of T lymphocyte among humans (HTLV1 i HTLV2 (Human T leukemia Virus)) named HTLV3.

As it was proven that this two viruses are identical, International Committee named it HIV in 1986. New types of HIV that causes same illness but are different in structure and that were discovered among infected persons in West Africa were labeled HIV 1 and HIV 2.