HIV / AIDS Specifications

Humane immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belongs to virus family Retroviridae , sub-family Lentivirinae. Virus has all characteristics of retrovirus. Its size is 100-140 nm, it has nucleoprotein nucleus and two-tier lipoprotein span. In nucleus there are ribonucleic acid (RNK) and necessary enzymes: reverse transcription, ribonucleaze and integraze. In virus genome there are three structural genes needed for virus replication: gag (for protein syntheses of vireo capsid), pol (for enzyme syntheses) and env (for alicoprotein span syntheses) and seven regulatory genes. Functions of these genes are known and they operate with virus duplication. Around genome and enzyme nucleus there is protein span, which is antigen of protein nucleus 24 (p24). On virus surface there is lipoprotein span, which is formed from cell span in which virus is replicating, while second part of span is coming from the virus and contains alicoproteines 41 (ap 41) and 120 (ap 120), which are as spikes stitched in lipoprotein span. This virus composition and acknowledgement that people were dying of HIV infection two decades ago, confirmed by investigation of their serums (which were saved in frozen state) is fact which discards the claim that this virus is artificially made and that epidemic was created on purpose.

Humane immunodeficiency virus is very sensitive in external environment and temperature of 56 ° C is inactivating him after 30 minutes. HIV is sensitive on low and very high pH values (<3 and >10). Chlor derivates are the best disinfection tool for HIV, as well as alcohol. Temperature of up to –70 ° C doesn't make damages on virus, and it's immune on UV and gamma rays.

Above gp 120 virus is linking with CD4 which is based on main regulative cell of immune system to supplementary T lymphocyte ­(CD4 T lymphocyte). Additionally, CD4 molecules are based on macrophages, gelial cerebrum cells, dendriticall skin cells and each of them can link HIV to itself and become infected. After entrance in CD 4 T lymphocyte, virus RNK transmits in DNK through reverse transcription and builds itself in genome of host as provirus. DNK virus built in this way uses normal mechanisms of host's cell for replication, and by that is disabling regulative function of CD4 lymphocyte, and in same time destroying ability of immune system to fight against microorganisms. Infected cells can be located in cerebrum, lymph glands, lungs, bone pith, skin and intestinal tract.

Two virus types are discovered until now: HIV1 and HIV2. HIV1 is prevalent in the entire world, while HIV2 is found in West Africa . Characteristic for HIV2 is that it's replicating two times faster then HIV1. At infected person virus is present in all body liquids and tissues, in different levels of concentration. Liquids where the virus is highly concentrated and through which can be transmitted in easiest way are:

  • Sperm
  • Vaginal secretion
  • Mother's milk
  • Cerumen (ear lubricant)
  • Liquor (cerebrum liquid).

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is deadly, incurable, sexually transmitted disease, developed as the last stadium of HIV infection. People diseased of AIDS are loosing weight, more than 5 kg in period of 1-2 months (if there are no other reasons for that), increased body temperature, permanent fatigue, stronger night perspiration, permanent headache, swelling pairs of lymph glands on neck, nape and under armpit, enduring dry cough, diarrhea and stomach pains, white sediments on tongue and mouth. Additionally, there are different disease symptoms on cerebrum, lungs, heart, digestive organs and skin, and in some cases certain types of malign tumor can appear .