Transmitting HIV

The basic way of transmission of HIV infection is through sexual intercourses. That is natural manner of transmission and the biggest problem in preventing spreading of this infection. Transmission through sexual contact is creating problem, because that is, after instinct for self-endurance, the strongest human instinct, especially among young people. Young people are in the same time the most threatened and 90% of diseased are of age between 15 and 45 and of both genders. In spermatic liquid of men and vaginal secretion of women that are infected, there are a big number of HIV infected cells. It is considered that just one infected cell is enough to infiltrate in organism and reach the lymph organs and result in HIV infection with all described consequences. It is easier to transmit HIV from man to woman, because mucous membrane is the more sensitive and it makes micro cultures that are enabling virus from sperm to enter in woman blood circulation.

The most risky is anal sexual relation, because area around of anal mouth and rectum is rich of blood capillaries and mucous membrane is very thin and pervious to injuries. Oral sex is considered risky for both partners, but more for active partner.

In addition, HIV can be transmitted through blood (by using the same needle for drug injecting, if medical worker is cut during the operation or while giving injections to person who are HIV infected, blood twinning, tattoo, during childbirth when mother is HIV positive). Today, all blood is tested on HIV and processed with special thermal treatment, so the risk of infection through blood transfusion and blood derivates is extremely low. Transmission through blood transfusion and blood derivates is practically impossible, because blood, tissues and organs for transplantation are obtained only from persons who are not HIV infected. In our country, control and testing on HIV of all blood products, tissues and organs is legally regulated since 1987.

Third possible way for HIV transmission is vertical transmission, from infected mother to child during the pregnancy, while giving childbirth or during breast-feeding through mother's milk. In recent times, pregnant women who are HIV infected are taking anti-retroviral therapy and then possibility for giving birth to HIV infected child is reduced to 1-5%, while the percent when they do not use therapy is 30%. If they use AZT drug during pregnancy and in combination with “palatial cut”, risk of HIV transmission to child will be less than 1%.

It is definitely determined that HIV infection can not be transmitted by:
Hand-shaking, kissing, using the same rooms (apartment, office, school), telephone, computer, common eating and drinking kit, sleeping in same bed, hugging, using same bathroom and towels and by insect sting.

Liquids with highest virus concentration and the easiest transmission are:
- Blood and blood derivates,
- sperm,
- vaginal secretion,
- mother's milk,
- cerrumen (ear lubricant) and
- liquor (cerebral liquid).

Although researchers have found HIV in the saliva of infected people, there is no evidence that the virus is spread by contact with saliva. Laboratory studies reveal that saliva has natural ingredients that inactivate virus. Research studies of people infected with HIV have found no evidence that the virus is spread to others through saliva by kissing (even "deep" kissing). Scientists also have found no evidence that HIV is spread through sweat, tears, urine, or feces. Researches conducted in families with members who are HIV positive, proved that using common eating and drinking kits, swimming pool or phone hand set are not the ways for transmitting HIV virus. As well, virus can't be transmitted through insects sting. Having a sexually transmitted disease such are chlamydeous infection, gonorrhea, syphilis or genital herpes makes people more at risk of getting HIV infection during sex with infected partners.